Continental Europe does not offer doctorates in composition. They argue that such degrees are absurd since composition is not an academic subject. I think this non-academic approach sets the creation and reception of European new music apart from its American counterpart.
the 60s and 70s the music department at the
Sometime in the 80s (I forget the exact year) Penn established a Ph.D. program, since it became clear that many of their students were not be able to get college jobs without them. It might be interesting to do a musicological study of those Penn grads who did not get Ph.D.s and see if they did indeed end up with careers and aesthetics that are different.